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Found 658 publications. Showing page 1 of 28:

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Lack of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of mPEG-silane coated iron(III) oxide nanoparticles doped with magnesium despite cellular uptake in cancerous and noncancerous lung cells

Sikorska, Malgorzata; Ruzycka-Ayoush, Monika; Rios-Mondragon, Ivan; Longhin, Eleonora Marta; Meczynska-Wielgosz, Sylwia; Wojewódzka, Maria; Kowalczyk, Agata; Kasprzak, Artur; Nowakowska, Julita; Sobczak, Kamil; Muszynska, Magdalena; Cimpan, Mihaela Roxana; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Shaposhnikov, Sergey; Kruszewski, Marcin; Dusinska, Maria; Nowicka, Anna M.; Grudzinski, Ireneusz P.

Elsevier

2024

Contribution of fluorescent primary biological aerosol particles to low-level Arctic cloud residuals

Pereira Freitas, Gabriel; Kopec, Ben; Adachi, Kouji; Krejci, Radovan; Heslin-Rees, Dominic; Yttri, Karl Espen; Hubbard, Alun Lloyd; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Zieger, Paul

Mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) are key players in the Arctic climate system due to their role in modulating solar and terrestrial radiation. Such radiative interactions rely, among other factors, on the ice content of MPCs, which is regulated by the availability of ice-nucleating particles (INPs). While it appears that INPs are associated with the presence of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) in the Arctic, the nuances of the processes and patterns of INPs and their association with clouds and moisture sources have not been resolved. Here, we investigated for a full year the abundance of and variability in fluorescent PBAPs (fPBAPs) within cloud residuals, directly sampled by a multiparameter bioaerosol spectrometer coupled to a ground-based counterflow virtual impactor inlet at the Zeppelin Observatory (475 m a.s.l.) in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard. fPBAP concentrations (10−3–10−2 L−1) and contributions to coarse-mode cloud residuals (0.1 to 1 in every 103 particles) were found to be close to those expected for high-temperature INPs. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of PBAPs, most likely bacteria, within one cloud residual sample. Seasonally, our results reveal an elevated presence of fPBAPs within cloud residuals in summer. Parallel water vapor isotope measurements point towards a link between summer clouds and regionally sourced air masses. Low-level MPCs were predominantly observed at the beginning and end of summer, and one explanation for their presence is the existence of high-temperature INPs. In this study, we present direct observational evidence that fPBAPs may play an important role in determining the phase of low-level Arctic clouds. These findings have potential implications for the future description of sources of ice nuclei given ongoing changes in the hydrological and biogeochemical cycles that will influence the PBAP flux in and towards the Arctic

2024

A template wizard for the cocreation of machine-readable data-reporting to harmonize the evaluation of (nano)materials

Jeliazkova, Nina; Longhin, Eleonora Marta; El Yamani, Naouale; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Moschini, Elisa; Serchi, Tommaso; Vrček, Ivana Vinković; Burgum, Michael J.; Doak, Shareen H.; Cimpan, Mihaela Roxana; Rios-Mondragon, Ivan; Cimpan, Emil; Battistelli, Chiara L.; Bossa, Cecilia; Tsekovska, Rositsa; Drobne, Damjana; Novak, Sara; Repar, Neža; Ammar, Ammar; Nymark, Penny; Di Battista, Veronica; Sosnowska, Anita; Puzyn, Tomasz; Kochev, Nikolay; Iliev, Luchesar; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Reilly, Katie; Lynch, Iseult; Martine, Bakker; Delpivo, Camilla; Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Fonseca, Ana Sofia; Manier, Nicolas; Fernandez-Cruz, María Luisa; Rashid, Shahzad; Willighagen, Egon L.; Apostolova, Margarita D; Dusinska, Maria

2024

Emission ensemble approach to improve the development of multi-scale emission inventories

Thunis, Philippe; Kuenen, Jeroen; Pisoni, Enrico; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Banja, Manjola; Gawuc, Lech; Szymankiewicz, Karol; Guizardi, Diego; Crippa, Monica; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Guevara, Marc; de Meij, Alexander; Schindlbacher, Sabine; Clappier, Alain

Many studies have shown that emission inventories are one of the inputs with the most critical influences on the results of air quality modelling. Comparing emission inventories among themselves is, therefore, essential to build confidence in emission estimates. In this work, we extend the approach of Thunis et al. (2022) to compare emission inventories by building a benchmark that serves as a reference for comparisons. This benchmark is an ensemble that is based on three state-of-the-art EU-wide inventories: CAMS-REG, EMEP and EDGAR. The ensemble-based methodology screens differences between inventories and the ensemble. It excludes differences that are not relevant and identifies among the remaining ones those that need special attention. We applied the ensemble-based screening to both an EU-wide and a local (Poland) inventory.

The EU-wide analysis highlighted a large number of inconsistencies. While the origin of some differences between EDGAR and the ensemble can be identified, their magnitude remains to be explained. These differences mostly occur for SO2 (sulfur oxides), PM (particulate matter) and NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic carbon) for the industrial and residential sectors and reach a factor of 10 in some instances. Spatial inconsistencies mostly occur for the industry and other sectors.

At the local scale, inconsistencies relate mostly to differences in country sectorial shares that result from different sectors/activities being accounted for in the two types of inventories. This is explained by the fact that some emission sources are omitted in the local inventory due to a lack of appropriate geographically allocated activity data. We identified sectors and pollutants for which discussion between local and EU-wide emission compilers would be needed in order to reduce the magnitude of the observed differences (e.g. in the residential and industrial sectors).

The ensemble-based screening proved to be a useful approach to spot inconsistencies by reducing the number of necessary inventory comparisons. With the progressive resolution of inconsistencies and associated inventory improvements, the ensemble will improve. In this sense, we see the ensemble as a useful tool to motivate the community around a single common benchmark and monitor progress towards the improvement of regionally and locally developed emission inventories.

2024

Understanding individual heat exposure through interdisciplinary research on thermoception

Serrano, Paloma Yáñez; Bieńkowska, Zofia; Boni, Zofia; Chwałczyk, Franciszek; Hassani, Amirhossein

Extreme heat events are more frequent and more intense globally due to climate change. The urban environment is an additional factor enhancing the effects of heat. Adults above 65 years old are especially at risk due to their poorer health, physiology and socio-economic situation. Yet, there is limited knowledge about their experiences of summer heat, their actual heat exposure and how they negotiate their thermal comfort through different adaptation practices. In conventional research on heat exposure and thermal comfort, very little attention is given to individual behaviour and subjective experiences. To understand how older adults feel the heat in the city we study their thermoception, which we conceptualise as an embodied knowledge about bodily sensations, thermal environments and adjustments to heat. This article stems from interdisciplinary research conducted in Warsaw and Madrid in the summers of 2021–2022. We combine and juxtapose data from ethnographic research and from physical measurements of temperature gathered in people’s homes, to show on a microscale how we can study and understand the diversity in individual heat exposure more holistically. We demonstrate that to understand the consequences of heat for vulnerable populations it is crucial to study thermoception, the subjective experiences of heat, in addition to analysing their thermal environments. With the use of a unique methodology, this article shows how similar weather conditions are experienced differently by people from the same cities, depending on the materiality of their dwellings, availability of cooling devices, as well as everyday habits and their individual bodies. We discuss the social, material and temporal adjustments participants made to deal with heat, to showcase their agency in affecting their individual heat exposure. The article emphasises the role of social sciences and qualitative methods in research on individual heat exposure and argues for the co-production of knowledge on the topic.

Palgrave Macmillan

2024

A Machine Learning Approach to Retrieving Aerosol Optical Depth Using Solar Radiation Measurements

Logothetis, Stavros-Andreas; Salamalikis, Vasileios; Kazantzidis, Andreas

Aerosol optical depth (AOD) constitutes a key parameter of aerosols, providing vital information for quantifying the aerosol burden and air quality at global and regional levels. This study demonstrates a machine learning strategy for retrieving AOD under cloud-free conditions based on the synergy of machine learning algorithms (MLAs) and ground-based solar irradiance data. The performance of the proposed methodology was investigated by applying different components of solar irradiance. In particular, the use of direct instead of global irradiance as a model feature led to better performance. The MLA-based AODs were compared to reference AERONET retrievals, which encompassed RMSE values between 0.01 and 0.15, regardless of the underlying climate and aerosol environments. Among the MLAs, artificial neural networks outperformed the other algorithms in terms of RMSE at 54% of the measurement sites. The overall performance of MLA-based AODs against AERONET revealed a high coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.97), MAE of 0.01, and RMSE of 0.02. Compared to satellite (MODIS) and reanalysis (MERRA-2 and CAMSRA) data, the MLA-AOD retrievals revealed the highest accuracy at all stations. The ML-AOD retrievals have the potential to expand and complement the AOD information in non-existing timeframes when solar irradiances are available.

MDPI

2024

Estimating stratospheric polar vortex strength using ambient ocean-generated infrasound and stochastics-based machine learning

Vorobeva, Ekaterina; Eggen, Mari Dahl; Midtfjord, Alise Danielle; Benth, Fred Espen; Hupe, Patrick; Brissaud, Quentin; Orsolini, Yvan Joseph Georges Emile G.; Näsholm, Sven Peter

There are sparse opportunities for direct measurement of upper stratospheric winds, yet improving their representation in subseasonal-to-seasonal prediction models can have significant benefits. There is solid evidence from previous research that global atmospheric infrasound waves are sensitive to stratospheric dynamics. However, there is a lack of results providing a direct mapping between infrasound recordings and polar-cap upper stratospheric winds. The global International Monitoring System (IMS), which monitors compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, includes ground-based stations that can be used to characterize the infrasound soundscape continuously. In this study, multi-station IMS infrasound data were utilized along with a machine-learning supported stochastic model, Delay-SDE-net, to demonstrate how a near-real-time estimate of the polar-cap averaged zonal wind at 1-hPa pressure level can be found from infrasound data. The infrasound was filtered to a temporal low-frequency regime dominated by microbaroms, which are ambient-noise infrasonic waves continuously radiated into the atmosphere from nonlinear interaction between counter-propagating ocean surface waves. Delay-SDE-net was trained on 5 years (2014–2018) of infrasound data from three stations and the ERA5 reanalysis 1-hPa polar-cap averaged zonal wind. Using infrasound in 2019–2020 for validation, we demonstrate a prediction of the polar-cap averaged zonal wind, with an error standard deviation of around 12 m·s compared with ERA5. These findings highlight the potential of using infrasound data for near-real-time measurements of upper stratospheric dynamics. A long-term goal is to improve high-top atmospheric model accuracy, which can have significant implications for weather and climate prediction.

John Wiley & Sons

2024

Impact of Biomass Burning on Arctic Aerosol Composition

Gramlich, Yvette; Siegel, Karolina; Haslett, Sophie L.; Cremer, Roxana S.; Lunder, Chris Rene; Kommula, Snehitha M.; Buchholz, Angela; Yttri, Karl Espen; Chen, Gang; Krejci, Radovan; Zieger, Paul; Virtanen, Annele; Riipinen, Ilona; Mohr, Claudia

Emissions from biomass burning (BB) occurring at midlatitudes can reach the Arctic, where they influence the remote aerosol population. By using measurements of levoglucosan and black carbon, we identify seven BB events reaching Svalbard in 2020. We find that most of the BB events are significantly different to the rest of the year (nonevents) for most of the chemical and physical properties. Aerosol mass and number concentrations are enhanced by up to 1 order of magnitude during the BB events. During BB events, the submicrometer aerosol bulk composition changes from an organic- and sulfate-dominated regime to a clearly organic-dominated regime. This results in a significantly lower hygroscopicity parameter κ for BB aerosol (0.4 ± 0.2) compared to nonevents (0.5 ± 0.2), calculated from the nonrefractory aerosol composition. The organic fraction in the BB aerosol showed no significant difference for the O:C ratios (0.9 ± 0.3) compared to the year (0.9 ± 0.6). Accumulation mode particles were present during all BB events, while in the summer an additional Aitken mode was observed, indicating a mixture of the advected air mass with locally produced particles. BB tracers (vanillic, homovanillic, and hydroxybenzoic acid, nitrophenol, methylnitrophenol, and nitrocatechol) were significantly higher when air mass back trajectories passed over active fire regions in Eastern Europe, indicating agricultural and wildfires as sources. Our results suggest that the impact of BB on the Arctic aerosol depends on the season in which they occur, and agricultural and wildfires from Eastern Europe have the potential to disturb the background conditions the most.

American Chemical Society (ACS)

2023

Life starts with plastic: High occurrence of plastic pieces in fledglings of northern fulmars

Collard, France; Benjaminsen, Stine Charlotte; Herzke, Dorte; Husabø, Eirin; Sagerup, Kjetil; Tulatz, Felix; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

Elsevier

2024

Effect of Long-Range Transported Fire Aerosols on Cloud Condensation Nuclei Concentrations and Cloud Properties at High Latitudes

Kommula, Snehitha M.; Buchholz, Angela; Gramlich, Yvette; Mielonen, Tero; Hao, L.; Pullinen, Iida; Vettikkat, Lejish; Ylisirniö, A.; Joutsensaari, J.; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Tiitta, P; Leskinen, Ari; Heslin-Rees, Dominic; Haslett, S. L.; Siegel, Karolina; Lunder, Chris Rene; Zieger, Paul; Krejci, Radovan; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Mohr, C.; Virtanen, Annele

Active vegetation fires in south-eastern (SE) Europe resulted in a notable increase in the number concentration of aerosols and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) particles at two high latitude locations—the SMEAR IV station in Kuopio, Finland, and the Zeppelin Observatory in Svalbard, high Arctic. During the fire episode aerosol hygroscopicity κ slightly increased at SMEAR IV and at the Zeppelin Observatory κ decreased. Despite increased κ in high CCN conditions at SMEAR IV, the aerosol activation diameter increased due to the decreased supersaturation with an increase in aerosol loading. In addition, at SMEAR IV during the fire episode, in situ measured cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) increased by a factor of ∼7 as compared to non-fire periods which was in good agreement with the satellite observations (MODIS, Terra). Results from this study show the importance of SE European fires for cloud properties and radiative forcing in high latitudes.

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

2024

The Greenhouse Gas Budget of Terrestrial Ecosystems in East Asia Since 2000

Wang, Xuhui; Gao, Yuanyi; Jeong, Sujong; Ito, Akihiko; Bastos, Ana; Poulter, Benjamin; Wang, Yilong; Ciais, Philippe; Tian, Hanqin; Yuan, Wenping; Chandra, Naveen; Chevallier, Frédéric; Fan, Lei; Hong, Songbai; Lauerwald, Ronny; Li, Wei; Lin, Zhengyang; Pan, Naiqing; Patra, Prabir K.; Peng, Shushi; Ran, Lishan; Sang, Yuxing; Sitch, Stephen; Takashi, Maki; Thompson, Rona Louise; Wang, Chenzhi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Tao; Xi, Yi; Xu, Liang; Yan, Yanzi; Yun, Jeongmin; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuzhong; Zhang, Zhen; Zheng, Bo; Zhou, Feng; Tao, Shu; Canadell, Josep G.; Piao, Shilong

American Geophysical Union (AGU)

2024

Modelled sources of airborne microplastics collected at a remote Southern Hemisphere site

Aves, Alex; Ruffell, Helena; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Gaw, Sally; Revell, Laura E.

Airborne microplastics have emerged in recent years as ubiquitous atmospheric pollutants. However, data from the Southern Hemisphere, and remote regions in particular, are sparse. Here, we report airborne microplastic deposition fluxes measured during a five-week sampling campaign at a remote site in the foothills of the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Samples were collected over 24-hour periods for the first week and for 7-day periods thereafter. On average, atmospheric microplastic (MP) deposition fluxes were six times larger during the 24-hour sampling periods (150 MP m−2 day−1) than during the 7-day sampling periods (26 MP m−2 day−1), highlighting the importance of sampling frequency and deposition collector design to limit particle resuspension. Previous studies, many of which used weekly sampling frequencies or longer, may have substantially underestimated atmospheric microplastic deposition fluxes, depending on the study design. To identify likely sources of deposited microplastics, we performed simulations with a global dispersion model coupled with an emissions inventory of airborne microplastics. Modelled deposition fluxes are in good agreement with observations, highlighting the potential for this method in tracing sources of deposited microplastics globally. Modelling indicates that sea-spray was the dominant source when microplastics underwent long-range atmospheric transport, with a small contribution from road dust.

Elsevier

2024

Can plastic related chemicals be indicators of plastic ingestion in an Arctic seabird?

Collard, France; Tulatz, Felix; Harju, Mikael; Herzke, Dorte; Bourgeon, Sophie; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

For decades, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) has been found to ingest and accumulate high loads of plastic due to its feeding ecology and digestive tract morphology. Plastic ingestion can lead to both physical and toxicological effects as ingested plastics can be a pathway for hazardous chemicals into seabirds' tissues. Many of these contaminants are ubiquitous in the environment and the contribution of plastic ingestion to the uptake of those contaminants in seabirds’ tissues is poorly known. In this study we aimed at quantifying several plastic-related chemicals (PRCs) -PBDE209, several dechloranes and several phthalate metabolites- and assessing their relationship with plastic burdens (both mass and number) to further investigate their potential use as proxies for plastic ingestion. Blood samples from fulmar fledglings and liver samples from both fledgling and non-fledgling fulmars were collected for PRC quantification. PBDE209 and dechloranes were quantified in 39 and 33 livers, respectively while phthalates were quantified in plasma. Plastic ingestion in these birds has been investigated previously and showed a higher prevalence in fledglings. PBDE209 was detected in 28.2 % of the liver samples. Dechlorane 602 was detected in all samples while Dechloranes 601 and 604 were not detected in any sample. Dechlorane 603 was detected in 11 individuals (33%). Phthalates were detected in one third of the analysed blood samples. Overall, no significant positive correlation was found between plastic burdens and PRC concentrations. However, a significant positive relationship between PBDE209 and plastic number was found in fledglings, although likely driven by one outlier. Our study shows the complexity of PRC exposure, the timeline of plastic ingestion and subsequent uptake of PRCs into the tissues in birds, the additional exposure of these chemicals via their prey, even in a species ingesting high loads of plastic.

Elsevier

2024

Air pollution emission inventory using national high-resolution spatial parameters for the Nordic countries and analysis of PM2.5 spatial distribution for road transport and machinery and off-road sectors

Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Segersson, David; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Vo, Dam Thanh; Kuenen, Jeroen; van der Gon, Hugo Denier; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Brandt, Jørgen; Geels, Camilla

Air pollution is an important cause of adverse health effects, even in the Nordic countries, which have relatively good air quality. Modelling-based air quality assessment of the health impacts relies on reliable model estimates of ambient air pollution concentrations, which furthermore rely on good-quality spatially resolved emission data. While quantitative emission estimates are the cornerstone of good emission data, description of the spatial distribution of the emissions is especially important for local air quality modelling at high resolution. In this paper we present a new air pollution emission inventory for the Nordic countries with high-resolution spatial allocation (1 km × 1 km) covering the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2012, and 2014. The inventory is available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10571094 (Paunu et al., 2023). To study the impact of applying national data and methods to the spatial distribution of the emissions, we compared road transport and machinery and off-road sectors to CAMS-REGv4.2, which used a consistent spatial distribution method throughout Europe for each sector. Road transport is a sector with well-established proxies for spatial distribution, while for the machinery and off-road sector, the choice of proxies is not as straightforward as it includes a variety of different type of vehicles and machines operating in various environments. We found that CAMS-REGv4.2 was able to produce similar spatial patterns to our Nordic inventory for the selected sectors. However, the resolution of our Nordic inventory allows for more detailed impact assessment than CAMS-REGv4.2, which had a resolution of 0.1° × 0.05° (longitude–latitude, roughly 5.5 km × 3.5–6.5 km in the Nordic countries). The EMEP/EEA Guidebook chapter on spatial mapping of emissions has recommendations for the sectoral proxies. Based on our analysis we argue that the guidebook should have separate recommendations for proxies for several sub-categories of the machinery and off-road sectors, instead of including them within broader sectors. We suggest that land use data are the best starting point for proxies for many of the subsectors, and they can be combined with other suitable data to enhance the spatial distribution. For road transport, measured traffic flow data should be utilized where possible, to support modelled data in the proxies.

2024

New insights from an eight-year study on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in an urban terrestrial ecosystem

Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Nygård, Torgeir; Moe, Børge; Herzke, Dorte

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were analysed in a high number of terrestrial samples of soil, earthworm, bird eggs and liver from red fox and brown rat in an urban area in Norway from 2013 to 2020. PFOS and the long chain PFCAs were the most dominating compounds in all samples, proving their ubiquitous distribution. Other less studied compounds such as 6:2 FTS were first and foremost detected in earthworm. 8:2 FTS was found in many samples of fieldfare egg, sparrowhawk egg and earthworm, where the eggs had highest concentrations. Highest concentrations for both 6:2 FTS and 8:2 FTS were detected at present and former industry areas. FOSA was detected in many samples of the species with highest concentrations in red fox liver and brown rat liver of 3.3 and 5.5 ng/g ww.

PFAS concentrations from the urban area were significantly higher than from background areas indicating that some of the species can be suitable as markers for PFAS emissions in an urban environment. Fieldfare eggs had surprisingly high concentrations of PFOS and PFCA concentrations from areas known to be or have been influenced by industry. Biota-soil-accumulation factor and magnification calculations indicate accumulation and magnification potential for several PFAS.

Earthworm and fieldfare egg had average concentrations above the Canadian and European thresholds in diet for avian wildlife and predators. For earthworms, 18 % of the samples exceeded the European threshold (33 ng/g ww) of PFOS in prey for predators, and for fieldfare eggs, 35 % of the samples were above the same threshold. None of the soil samples exceeded a proposed PNEC of PFOS for soil living organisms of 373 ng/g dw.

Elsevier

2024

Widespread Pesticide Distribution in the European Atmosphere Questions their Degradability in Air

Mayer, Ludovic; Degrendele, Celine; Senk, Petr; Kohoutek, Jiří; Přibylovác, Petra; Kukučka, Petr; Melymuk, Lisa; Durand, Amandine; Ravier, Sylvain; Alastuey, Andres; Baker, Alex R.; Baltensperger, Urs; Baumann-Stanzer, Kathrin; Biermann, Tobias; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Ceburnis, Darius; Conil, Sébastien; Couret, Cedric; Degorska, Anna; Diapouli, Evangelia; Eckhardt, Sabine; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Forster, Grant L.; Freier, Korbinian; Gheusi, Francois; Gini, Maria; Hellén, Heidi; Henne, Stephan; Hermann, Hartmut; Šmejkalová, Adéla Holubová; Horrak, Urmas; Hüglin, Christoph; Junninen, Heikki; Kristensson, Adam; Langrene, Laurent; Levula, Janne; Lothon, Marie; Ludewig, Elke; Makkonen, Ulla; Matejovičová, Jana; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Mináriková, Veronika; Moche, Wolfgang; Noe, Steffen M.; Perez, Noemi; Petäjä, Tuukka; Pont, Veronique; Poulain, Laurent; Quivet, Etienne; Ratz, Gabriela; Rehm, Till; Reimann, Stefan; Simmons, Ivan; Sonke, Jeroen E.; Sorribas, Mar; Spoor, Ronald; Swart, Daan P.J.; Vasilatou, Vasiliki; Wortham, Henri; Yela, Margarita; Zarmpas, Pavlos; Zellweger-Fäsi, Claudia; Tørseth, Kjetil; Laj, Paolo G.; Klanova, Jana; Lammel, Gerhard

Risk assessment of pesticide impacts on remote ecosystems makes use of model-estimated degradation in air. Recent studies suggest these degradation rates to be overestimated, questioning current pesticide regulation. Here, we investigated the concentrations of 76 pesticides in Europe at 29 rural, coastal, mountain, and polar sites during the agricultural application season. Overall, 58 pesticides were observed in the European atmosphere. Low spatial variation of 7 pesticides suggests continental-scale atmospheric dispersal. Based on concentrations in free tropospheric air and at Arctic sites, 22 pesticides were identified to be prone to long-range atmospheric transport, which included 15 substances approved for agricultural use in Europe and 7 banned ones. Comparison between concentrations at remote sites and those found at pesticide source areas suggests long atmospheric lifetimes of atrazine, cyprodinil, spiroxamine, tebuconazole, terbuthylazine, and thiacloprid. In general, our findings suggest that atmospheric transport and persistence of pesticides have been underestimated and that their risk assessment needs to be improved.

2024

Composition and sources of carbonaceous aerosol in the European Arctic at Zeppelin Observatory, Svalbard (2017 to 2020)

Yttri, Karl Espen; Bäcklund, Are; Conen, Franz; Eckhardt, Sabine; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Fiebig, Markus; Kasper-Giebl, Anne; Gold, Avram; Gundersen, Hans; Myhre, Cathrine Lund; Platt, Stephen Matthew; Simpson, David; Surratt, Jason D.; Szidat, Sönke; Rauber, Martin; Tørseth, Kjetil; Ytre-Eide, Martin Album; Zhang, Zhenfa; Aas, Wenche

We analyzed long-term measurements of organic carbon, elemental carbon, and source-specific organic tracers from 2017 to 2020 to constrain carbonaceous aerosol sources in the rapidly changing Arctic. Additionally, we used absorption photometer (Aethalometer) measurements to constrain equivalent black carbon (eBC) from biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, using positive matrix factorization (PMF).

Our analysis shows that organic tracers are essential for understanding Arctic carbonaceous aerosol sources. Throughout 2017 to 2020, levoglucosan exhibited bimodal seasonality, reflecting emissions from residential wood combustion (RWC) in the heating season (November to May) and from wildfires (WFs) in the non-heating season (June to October), demonstrating a pronounced interannual variability in the influence of WF. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) species (2-methyltetrols) from isoprene oxidation was only present in the non-heating season, peaking in July to August. Warm air masses from Siberia led to a substantial increase in 2-methyltetrols in 2019 and 2020 compared to 2017 to 2018. This highlights the need to investigate the contribution of local sources vs. long-range atmospheric transport (LRT), considering the temperature sensitivity of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from Arctic vegetation. Tracers of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs), including various sugars and sugar alcohols, showed elevated levels in the non-heating season, although with different seasonal trends, whereas cellulose had no apparent seasonality. Most PBAP tracers and 2-methyltetrols peaked during influence of WF emissions, highlighting the importance of measuring a range of source-specific tracers to understand sources and dynamics of carbonaceous aerosol. The seasonality of carbonaceous aerosol was strongly influenced by LRT episodes, as background levels are extremely low. In the non-heating season, the organic aerosol peak was as influenced by LRT, as was elemental carbon during the Arctic haze period.

Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol by Latin hypercube sampling showed mixed contributions from RWC (46 %), fossil fuel (FF) sources (27 %), and BSOA (25 %) in the heating season. In contrast, the non-heating season was dominated by BSOA (56 %), with lower contributions from WF (26 %) and FF sources (15 %).

Source apportionment of eBC by PMF showed that FF combustion dominated eBC (70±2.7 %), whereas RWC (22±2.7 %) was more abundant than WF (8.0±2.9 %). Modeled BC concentrations from FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) attributed an almost equal share to FF sources (51±3.1 %) and to biomass burning. Both FLEXPART and the PMF analysis concluded that RWC is a more important source of (e)BC than WF. However, with a modeled RWC contribution of 30±4.1 % and WF of 19±2.8 %, FLEXPART suggests relatively higher contributions to eBC from these sources. Notably, the BB fraction of EC was twice as high as that of eBC, reflecting methodological differences between source apportionment by LHS and PMF. However, important conclusions drawn are unaffected, as both methods indicate the presence of RWC- and WF-sourced BC at Zeppelin, with a higher relative BB contribution during the non-heating season.

In summary, organic aerosol (281±106 ng m−3) constitutes a significant fraction of Arctic PM10, although surpassed by sea salt aerosol (682±46.9 ng m−3), mineral dust (613±368 ng m−3), and typically non-sea-salt sulfate SO (314±62.6 ng m−3), originating mainly from anthropogenic sources in winter and from natural sources in summer.

2024

Recommendations for reporting equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations based on long-term pan-European in-situ observations

Savadkoohi, Marjan; Pandolfi, Marco; Favez, Olivier; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Fiebig, Markus; Hopke, Philip K.; Laj, Paolo G.; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bastian, Susanne; Chazeau, Benjamin; Maria, Alvaro Clemente; Colombi, Cristina; Costabile, Francesca; Green, David C.; Hueglin, Christoph; Liakakou, Eleni; Luoma, Krista; Listrani, Stefano; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Marchand, Nicolas; Močnik, Griša; Niemi, Jarkko V; Ondráček, Jakub; Petit, Jean Eudes; Rattigan, Oliver V.; Reche, Cristina; Timonen, Hilkka; Titos, Gloria; Tremper, Anja H.; Vratolis, Stergios; Vodicka, Petr; Funes, Eduardo Yubero; Zíková, Naděžda; Harrison, Roy M.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

A reliable determination of equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations derived from filter absorption photometers (FAPs) measurements depends on the appropriate quantification of the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) for converting the absorption coefficient (babs) to eBC. This study investigates the spatial–temporal variability of the MAC obtained from simultaneous elemental carbon (EC) and babs measurements performed at 22 sites. We compared different methodologies for retrieving eBC integrating different options for calculating MAC including: locally derived, median value calculated from 22 sites, and site-specific rolling MAC. The eBC concentrations that underwent correction using these methods were identified as LeBC (local MAC), MeBC (median MAC), and ReBC (Rolling MAC) respectively. Pronounced differences (up to more than 50 %) were observed between eBC as directly provided by FAPs (NeBC; Nominal instrumental MAC) and ReBC due to the differences observed between the experimental and nominal MAC values. The median MAC was 7.8 ± 3.4 m2 g-1 from 12 aethalometers at 880 nm, and 10.6 ± 4.7 m2 g-1 from 10 MAAPs at 637 nm. The experimental MAC showed significant site and seasonal dependencies, with heterogeneous patterns between summer and winter in different regions. In addition, long-term trend analysis revealed statistically significant (s.s.) decreasing trends in EC. Interestingly, we showed that the corresponding corrected eBC trends are not independent of the way eBC is calculated due to the variability of MAC. NeBC and EC decreasing trends were consistent at sites with no significant trend in experimental MAC. Conversely, where MAC showed s.s. trend, the NeBC and EC trends were not consistent while ReBC concentration followed the same pattern as EC. These results underscore the importance of accounting for MAC variations when deriving eBC measurements from FAPs and emphasize the necessity of incorporating EC observations to constrain the uncertainty associated with eBC.

Elsevier

2024

Aircraft-based mass balance estimate of methane emissions from offshore gas facilities in the southern North Sea

Pühl, Magdalena; Roiger, Anke; Fiehn, Alina; Gorchov Negron, Alan M.; Kort, Eric A.; Schwietzke, Stefan; Pisso, Ignacio; Foulds, Amy; Lee, James; France, James L.; Jones, Anna E.; Lowry, Dave; Fisher, Rebecca E.; Huang, Langwen; Shaw, Jacob; Bateson, Prudence; Andrews, Stephen; Young, Stuart; Dominutti, Pamela; Lachlan-Cope, Tom; Weiss, Alexandra; Allen, Grant

Atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations have more than doubled since the beginning of the industrial age, making CH4 the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2). The oil and gas sector represents one of the major anthropogenic CH4 emitters as it is estimated to account for 22 % of global anthropogenic CH4 emissions. An airborne field campaign was conducted in April–May 2019 to study CH4 emissions from offshore gas facilities in the southern North Sea with the aim of deriving emission estimates using a top-down (measurement-led) approach. We present CH4 fluxes for six UK and five Dutch offshore platforms or platform complexes using the well-established mass balance flux method. We identify specific gas production emissions and emission processes (venting and fugitive or flaring and combustion) using observations of co-emitted ethane (C2H6) and CO2. We compare our top-down estimated fluxes with a ship-based top-down study in the Dutch sector and with bottom-up estimates from a globally gridded annual inventory, UK national annual point-source inventories, and operator-based reporting for individual Dutch facilities. In this study, we find that all the inventories, except for the operator-based facility-level reporting, underestimate measured emissions, with the largest discrepancy observed with the globally gridded inventory. Individual facility reporting, as available for Dutch sites for the specific survey date, shows better agreement with our measurement-based estimates. For all the sampled Dutch installations together, we find that our estimated flux of (122.9 ± 36.8) kg h−1 deviates by a factor of 0.64 (0.33–12) from reported values (192.8 kg h−1). Comparisons with aircraft observations in two other offshore regions (the Norwegian Sea and the Gulf of Mexico) show that measured, absolute facility-level emission rates agree with the general distribution found in other offshore basins despite different production types (oil, gas) and gas production rates, which vary by 2 orders of magnitude. Therefore, mitigation is warranted equally across geographies.

2024

Air-soil cycling of oxygenated, nitrated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in source and receptor areas

Mwangi, John K.; Degrendele, Celine; Bandowe, Benjamin A. M.; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Halse, Anne Karine; Šmejkalová, Adela Holubová; Kim, Jun-Tae; Kukučka, Petr; Martiník, Jakub; Nežiková, Barbora Palátová; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Sáňka, Milan; Tannous, Mariam; Vinkler, Jakub; Lammel, Gerhard

Elsevier

2024

Estimation of the atmospheric hydroxyl radical oxidative capacity using multiple hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

Thompson, Rona Louise; Montzka, Stephen A.; Vollmer, Martin K.; Arduini, Jgor; Crotwell, Molly; Krummel, Paul B.; Lunder, Chris Rene; Mühle, Jens; O'doherty, Simon; Prinn, Ronald G.; Reimann, Stefan; Vimont, Isaac; Wang, Hsiang; Weiss, Ray F.; Young, Dickon

2024

Trends in Air Pollution in Europe, 2000–2019

Aas, Wenche; Fagerli, Hilde; Alastuey, Andres; Cavalli, Fabrizia; Degorska, Anna; Feigenspan, Stefan; Brenna, Hans; Gliss, Jonas; Heinesen, Daniel; Hueglin, Christoph; Holubová, Adela; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Mortier, Augustin; Murovec, Marijana; Putaud, Jean-Philippe; Rüdige, Julian; Simpson, David; Solberg, Sverre; Tsyro, Svetlana; Tørseth, Kjetil; Yttri, Karl Espen

This paper encompasses an assessment of air pollution trends in rural environments in Europe over the 2000–2019 period, benefiting from extensive long-term observational data from the EMEP monitoring network and EMEP MSC-W model computations. The trends in pollutant concentrations align with the decreasing emission patterns observed throughout Europe. Annual average concentrations of sulfur dioxide, particulate sulfate, and sulfur wet deposition have shown consistent declines of 3-4% annually since 2000. Similarly, oxidized nitrogen species have markedly decreased across Europe, with an annual reduction of 1.5-2% in nitrogen dioxide concentrations, total nitrate in the air, and oxidized nitrogen deposition. Notably, emission reductions and model predictions appear to slightly surpass the observed declines in sulfur and oxidized nitrogen, indicating a potential overestimation of reported emission reductions. Ammonia emissions have decreased less compared to other pollutants since 2000. Significant reductions in particulate ammonium have however, been achieved due to the impact of reductions in SOx and NOx emissions. For ground level ozone, both the observed and modelled peak levels in summer show declining trends, although the observed decline is smaller than modelled. There have been substantial annual reductions of 1.8% and 2.4% in the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Elemental carbon has seen a reduction of approximately 4.5% per year since 2000. A similar reduction for organic carbon is only seen in winter when primary anthropogenic sources dominate. The observed improvements in European air quality emphasize the importance of comprehensive legislations to mitigate emissions.

2024

Optical and Microphysical Properties of the Aerosols during a Rare Event of Biomass-Burning Mixed with Polluted Dust

Gidarakou, Marilena; Papayannis, Alexandros; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Vratolis, Stergios; Remoundaki, Emmanouella; Zwaaftink, Christine Groot; Eckhardt, Sabine; Veselovskii, Igor; Mylonaki, Maria; Argyrouli, Athina; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Solomos, Stavros; Gini, Maria

A rare event of mixed biomass-burning and polluted dust aerosols was observed over Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E), during 21–26 May 2014. This event was studied using a synergy of a 6-wavelength elastic-Raman-depolarization lidar measurements, a CIMEL sun photometer, and in situ instrumentation. The FLEXPART dispersion model was used to identify the aerosol sources and quantify the contribution of dust and black carbon particles to the mass concentration. The identified air masses were found to originate from Kazakhstan and Saharan deserts, under a rare atmospheric pressure system. The lidar ratio (LR) values retrieved from the Raman lidar ranged within 25–89 sr (355 nm) and 35–70 sr (532 nm). The particle linear depolarization ratio (δaer) ranged from 7 to 28% (532 nm), indicating mixing of dust with biomass-burning particles. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) values derived from the lidar ranged from 0.09–0.43 (355 nm) to 0.07–0.25 (532 nm). An inversion algorithm was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean effective radius (reff), single scattering albedo (SSA), and mean complex refractive index (m)) inside selected atmospheric layers. We found that reff was 0.12–0.51 (±0.04) µm, SSA was 0.94–0.98 (±0.19) (at 532 nm), while m ranged between 1.39 (±0.05) + 0.002 (±0.001)i and 1.63 (±0.05) + 0.008 (±0.004)i. The polarization lidar photometer networking (POLIPHON) algorithm was used to estimate the vertical profile of the mass concentration for the dust and non-dust components. A mean mass concentration of 15 ± 5 μg m−3 and 80 ± 29 μg m−3 for smoke and dust was estimated for selected days, respectively. Finally, the retrieved aerosol microphysical properties were compared with column-integrated sun photometer CIMEL data with good agreement

MDPI

2024

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