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Dacon – VOC-monitoring in working environment

Project

Dacon is a small production facility located in Baerum, west of Oslo, Norway. The main products are equipment for search and rescue designed for boats and maritime sector.

During the production, the company uses various types of plastic and plastic fabrics that are treated, melted and moulded into new products. This process gives emissions of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) into the working environment.

In this project, samples were taken during melting and burning of plastic materials, as well as in different locations in the production facility in Baerum.

All concentrations were below the threshold values given in Norwegian legislation.

VOC-monitoring at Hydrovolt, Fredrikstad

Project

Hydrovolt is a joint venture owned by Hydro (NO) and Northvolt (SE), and the company operates a battery recycling facility in Fredrikstad, S-E Norway.

The purpose of the NILU monitoring was to quantify the levels of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) at the Hydrovolt plant. The sampling took place at various steps throughout the production line.

The NILU technology to remove hydrogen fluoride (HF) was applied. If HF is not removed, HF can dissolve the TenaxTM sampling material and hence give erroneously high concentrations of VOCs.

There was also sampling of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrogen fluoride (HF), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), formic acid (HCOOH), and acetic acid (CH3COOH) using passive samplers.

The monitoring results will be sent to Norwegian authorities (County Governor) to document components emitted from the Hydrovolt facility.

For all practical purposes, the volume flow emitted from Hydrovolt is small (55 m3/h) and the total amount emitted is regarded as minor.

Diffuse emissions of dust from LKAB Narvik

Project

NILU has, on behalf of LKAB Norge AS, carried out emission and dispersion calculations for combined emissions from point sources and diffuse sources from the facility in Narvik. The purpose of the project was to develop dispersion calculations that indicate LKAB's contribution to the pollution situation in Narvik.

LKAB Norge AS in Narvik is responsible for loading iron ore from Sweden onto ships at LKAB's port in Narvik, as well as unloading additives for transport back to LKAB in Sweden. This process involves both controlled point source emissions and emissions from diffuse sources. Several factors, including correlation between loading activity and measured deposition, suggest that the loading and unloading operation is the most significant diffuse source.

The dispersion calculations have been conducted using FLEXPART-WRF, an atmospheric dispersion model based on meteorological data from the weather forecasting model WRF. FLEXPART models particles that follow the turbulent air movements of the atmosphere and are deposited on the surface through dry and wet deposition. In this analysis, total emissions are estimated on inverse calculations from  the relationship between measured and calculated dust deposition, rather than from generic emission factors such as the EEA/EMEP air pollutant emission inventory Guidebook (2019).

This, along with an assumption about the size distribution of dust emissions, yields a resulting field of ground concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5. The concentration field can be extracted from the model at the desired time and spatial resolution.

The figure shows three snapshots of the PM10 concentration field along with the temporal variation at a given point over a period in February. A full calendar year is calculated, providing annual mean, daily mean, and hourly mean concentrations.

[caption id="attachment_52069" align="alignnone" width="1171"] The figure shows three snapshots of the PM10 concentration field along with the temporal variation at a given point over a period in February. A full calendar year is calculated, providing annual mean, daily mean, and hourly mean concentrations.[/caption]

[caption id="attachment_52067" align="aligncenter" width="1379"]LKAB LKAB in Narvik. Copyright: LKAB.[/caption]

Boliden – Diffuse emissions from unloading of zinc concentrate

Project

Diffuse emissions from the unloading of zinc (Zn) concentrate in Odda, Western Norway have been quantified using an inverse modelling approach.

Eleven deposition samplers were strategically placed around the plant with sampling period of six months, approximately one month exposure time. Metal content of deposited material in the samplers were analyzed by mass spectrometry.

The gaussian deposition model CONDEP, driven by wind data measured on site, was applied to estimate emissions of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), arsenic (As) and copper (Cu). These emission estimates were then used to calculate deposition onto water surfaces.

The emission rate of Zn was estimated to be 19 (between 7 and 36) g per ton unloaded mass, equivalent to 214 (150‑300) kg per 30 days. Of the total mass emitted, 40% (27-45%) were estimated deposited onto water, equivalent to 89 (40‑140) kg per 30 days.

Dispersion modeling of air pollution from Årdal Metallverk

Project

NILU has studied the effect of aluminum production on the environment around Norwegian aluminum smelters by doing calculations and measurements since the early 1970s.

In this project, surface concentrations have been calculated for SO2, dust and fluorides, as well as the metal components listed in the emission permit close to the smelter in Årdal, Western Norway.

The calculations are based on a conservative methodology (CONDEP) and the emission inventories are taken from the emissions permit as a worst-case assessment.

The mapping provides answers as to whether there is a risk of certain pollution components being exceeded, or whether the emissions indicate ground concentrations below the current limit values.

For example, the results show that the limit values for SO2 around the plant will not be exceeded by a good margin.

Norwegian initiative for EarthCARE Validation of Aerosol uncertainties and Radiation products in the Arctic

Project

The “Norwegian initiative for EarthCARE Validation of Aerosol uncertainties and Radiation products in the Arctic” (NEVAR) project aims at supporting the geophysical validation of the EarthCARE data products.

The EarthCARE (Earth Clouds Aerosols and Radiation Explorer) mission is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA).

Its main goal is improving the understanding of cloud-aerosol-radiation interactions and Earth radiative balance, so that they can be modelled with better reliability in climate and in numerical weather prediction models.

EarthCARE will carry four instruments:

  • ATLID (Atmospheric Lidar),
  • BBR (Broad-Band Radiometer),
  • CPR (Cloud Profiling Radar) and
  • MSI (Multi-Spectral Imager)

and will provide numerous data products, namely forty-four ESA products and eleven JAXA products. The launch is expected for April 2024.

For an overview of the EarthCARE mission see:

The NEVAR project was kicked-off 11 November 2022. It aims at supporting the geophysical validation of the EarthCARE data products. It is split in two phases:

  1. Preparatory support activities, which start now and lasting for 18 months, and
  2. EarthCARE validation activities, which will be kicked-off 9 months before launch and will end three years after launch.

The main goals and objectives of the NEVAR proposal:

  • To inventory instrumental and institutional capabilities in Arctic countries, and to engage these in the validation of EarthCARE.
  • To contribute to the formulation of best practice validation protocols for aerosol and cloud profiles.
  • To perform a global assessment of aerosol and uncertainty products from EarthCARE.
  • To evaluate radiation products for selected location in the Arctic.

Schools of a good climate – construction of educational green zones in primary schools no. 1 and no. 4 in Kozienice to mitigate climate change and adapt to its effects

Project

The GeenZone project aims to i) strengthen the resilience in the schools to the negative effects of climate change; ii) raise students and teachers' awareness of climate change; and iii) reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the local community level. To do so, the project will implement various nature-based solutions (NBS) in two schools and one public space in the city of Kozienice, including:

  1. Construction of permeable ground surfaces for water retention and managing rainwater
  2. Implementing green walls, planting appropriate non-invasive plants and fruit trees
  3. Building eco-educational space
  4. Developing educational paths and didactic gardens
  5. Creating eco-gardens, building houses for animals

In addition, various educational and awareness raising activities will be carried out, including:

  1. Awareness raising campaigns via various social media towards public
  2. Activation of the schools and local communities through direct engagement in the implementation of the NBS
  3. Training and educational activities towards schools’ teachers and students
Logo INQUIRE

Identification of chemical and biological determinants, their sources, and strategies to promote healthier homes in Europe

Project

Enabling homes to realise zero pollution holds multiple health benefits for all Europeans – especially our children. This is the goal of the EU-funded INQUIRE project.

It will provide the knowledge, tools and measures needed to significantly enhance indoor air quality. Research on hazardous determinants and their sources, risk factors and effects will focus in particular on infants and young children up to 5 years old.

The work will include non-invasive sampling and monitoring of over 200 homes in eight countries over the course of 1 month. Results will inform evidence-based recommendations and support beneficial exploitation by industry and policymakers.

DOI 10.3030/101057499

 

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Autonomous Multi-Format In-Situ Observation Platform for Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Methane Monitoring in Permafrost & Wetlands

Project

Climate warming is driven by increased concentrations of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) e.g., CO2 and CH4, in the atmosphere. Existing observatories are able to capture GHG information for large-scale global assessments, but short-term natural variability and climate-driven changes in atmospheric CO2 and CH4 remain less known. There is also currently a lack of sufficiently precise, autonomous, and cost-efficient GHG sensors for GHG monitoring at sufficient spatial scale, and in hard-to-reach areas.

MISO will develop and demonstrate an autonomous in-situ observation platform for use in hard to reach areas (Arctic, wetlands), for detecting and quantifying carbon dioxide and methane gasses, using a combination of stationary and mobile (drone) solutions and requiring minimum on-site intervention when deployed.

To achieve this objective, MISO will improve detection limit and accuracy of a NDIR GHG sensor, which will then be used in three observing platforms (a static tower, a static chamber and a UAV-mounted sensor) operated with the help of a central base unit. All elements will be designed for operation in harsh environments and with minimum human intervention. The static observatories will be powered by a unique geothermal device.

Communication between the three observatories and a data cloud will use a combination of P2P, G4/G5/LTE, LORAWAN and wifi technologies. The specifications of the platform will be co-developed with stakeholders from academia, monitoring and measurement systems, industry and policy.

A clear DCE strategy and focus on short-term impact management and medium and long-term commercialization will target several user groups including industries and representatives of main monitoring systems and infrastructures (e.g., ICOS). This will support innovative governance models and science-based policy design, implementation and monitoring. Sustainability performance and competitiveness in the domains covered by HE Cluster 6 will be enhanced.

Project DOI: https://doi.org/10.3030/101086541

Knowledge support for the European Climate and Health Observatory: infectious diseases and ground-level ozone

Project

The European Climate and Health Observatory (Observatory) is developed in a partnership of several European institutions and organizations. EEA maintains the Observatory, which is hosted on the European climate adaptation portal Climate‐ADAPT. The Observatory has developed into a portal that provides information on climate and human health in Europe, in response to European and national policy developments.  Impacts of climate change on health, indicators on climate and health, various information systems and tools including early warning systems on climate and health and case studies of implemented solutions are among the elements that are being developed in the Observatory.

The workplan for years 2021‐2022 of the Observatory has thematic focus on heat impacts on health and on climate‐sensitive infectious diseases, and the ClimaObs project is supporting these topics. The general objective of the project is to contribute to the Observatory by providing knowledge products suitable for inclusion in the Observatory, including visual information, descriptions, and data.

The project aims to deliver the following knowledge products:  

  • Description of occurrence in Europe for selected diseases  ii
  • Analysis of changes in disease seasonality in relation to climatic conditions for selected diseases
  • Disease forecasting outputs for pilot disease
  • Webpage on health effects of ground‐level ozone under the changing climate

Efficient Recycling of E-Waste through Automated and Intelligent Resource Dataflow

Project

The rapid technological advances with increasing application of ICT have accelerated the generation of electronic waste (e-waste). In addition, the green transition objectives under the European Green Deal advocates the utilization of renewable technologies and digital infrastructures, which will continue to increase the demand for critical raw materials, especially rare-earth elements.

Inefficient waste management systems are identified as one of the most challenging barriers in the transition to a sustainable and circular economy (CE). The lack of high-quality data from various stakeholders at the national and international levels along with the heterogeneous nature of e-waste makes the challenge of regulating and supporting e-waste management systems a daunting task for the authorities. In addition, insufficient information about the quantity of e-waste, diversity of products, and resources quality have created multi-dimensional e-waste management challenges for authorities at the local, national, and international levels.

We propose REWARD, an integrated information infrastructure, that aims at systematically identifying reusable and recyclable materials in e-waste products while determining the associated social, environmental, and economic (SEE) dimensions of circularity interventions. In REWARD, the data on e-waste generation and e-waste resources, along with SEE parameters will be fed to the integrated information infrastructure to facilitate automated data sharing and identifying optimal e-waste resources recycling options among e-waste actors. In addition, REWARD provides predictive resource planning and policy recommendations for the improvement of e-waste resource recovery in the future.

The project REWARD addresses the following thematic priorities:

  • resource-efficient ways of covering consumer needs
  • increased material recycling and use of recycled materials
  • identifying barriers and solutions to circular business models and value chain

Airborne Microplastic Detection, Origin, Transport and Global Radiative Impact

Project

The project with the short name "MAGIC" will incorporate advances in atmospheric sampling (e.g., from Global Atmosphere Watch stations, GAW) and detection of microplastics (e.g. long timeseries of measurements) into atmospheric dispersion and inverse modelling algorithms.

This will allow for accurate determination of their atmospheric levels, precise quantification of their sources and reliable constrain of their atmospheric budget.

Important processes affecting the atmospheric dispersion of microplastics will be carefully studied (e.g., turbulence- induced resuspension and oceanic ejection, non-spherical particle modelling) and modelled for the first time.

The obtained knowledge will be used to answer the primary objective of MAGIC for the role of microplastics in the global radiative budget at present and future years.

Our inter-disciplinary team is in a unique position to assess the state of atmospheric microplastic emissions and dynamics and their impact on Earth’s radiative balance. This will enable a targeted approach to investigation and monitoring of atmospheric microplastic signals in atmospheric data and dispersion models.

Primary objective

The primary objective of MAGIC is to investigate sources and sinks of atmospheric microplastics transported to remote regions through the atmosphere and their subsequent climate feedback.

Secondary objectives are to:

  1. Develop FLEXPART model in order to account for non-spherical structures (microfibers).
  2. Develop an inverse modelling algorithm that will be used for source quantification of atmospheric microplastics.
  3. Identify source origin of atmospheric microplastics deposited in snow and ice in high northern latitudes.
  4. Develop and ingest a module into FLEXPART for the resuspension of atmospheric microplastics (grasshopper effect, large-eddy simulations).
  5. Create protocols of standard operating procedures for sampling of atmospheric microplastics in PM10.
  6. Develop an analytical determination methodology for atmospheric microplastics (TED-MS, TD-PTR-MS).
  7. Define the climatic role/impact of atmospheric microplastics at present and future times (radiative transfer modelling).

Quantification of Global Ammonia Sources constrained by a Bayesian Inversion Technique

Project

Nitrogen is a basic component of life and it is present both in proteins and DNA. Its basic chemical form in nature is the non-reactive gaseous N2.

However, in the 20th Century humans converted N2 into more reactive forms. Today, NH3 (ammonia) sustains life and almost 40% of the global population owes its life to NH3 through the use of fertilisers' in food production. Though, implications of ammonia for population and environment have received a lot of attention in the last decades.

On one hand, its presence in the atmosphere in low concentrations is beneficial as it makes the rain less acidic by neutralising sulphuric acid aerosols. On the other hand, increased emissions of NH3 result in reactions with sulphuric and nitric acids contributing 30%-50% to the total PM2.5 and PM10 mass.

Enhanced production of ammonium aerosols can cause premature mortality as they penetrate human respiratory system and deposit in the lungs. Furthermore, ammonium aerosols affect the Earth's radiative balance, both directly by scattering incoming radiation and indirectly as cloud condensation nuclei causing a positive climate feedback (warming).

Despite its importance, NH3 is one of the most poorly quantified gases with a limited number of continuous ammonia measurements in Europe, America or Asia.

However, the lack of observations is covered by satellites and nowadays satellite algorithms are advanced enough to provide daily global concentrations of atmospheric NH3.

We use the existing knowledge of Lagrangian dispersion modelling and Bayesian inversion in NILU accompanied by continuous and satellite measurements to quantify regional (Europe) and global emissions of NH3.

The optimised fluxes of NH3 are studied and the impact to the environment and the population is examined. The methodology is designed to maximize the utility of empirical data for the least understood aspects and use models for source identification, which cannot be inferred from measurements alone.

The main points of COMBAT's developments and progress:

(Publications - see below.)

- The coupling of FLEXPART model with the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP) to account for chemistry has resulted in a Conference publication (16th IGAC Scientific Confeence). A publication will be lead by the University of Bremen.

- The methodology to calculate NH3 emissions from satellite measurements was adapted to the needs of LSCE and this has resulted in a Conference publication (16th IGAC Scientific Confeence). A publication on this will be lead by the LSCE .

- Satellite measurements of NH3 from CrIS product are being processed to the inverse modelling framework. This will result in a publication focusing in Europe using the new reanalysis product from ECMWF (ERA5).

UV Intercomparison and Integration in a High Arctic Environment

Project

The Arctic is a region which to high extent influences the atmospheric behaviour in the Northern hemisphere and for this reason attracts the attention of the scientific community. The Atmosphere Research Flagship Programme (http://nysmac.npolar.no/research/flagships/atmosphere.html) is an activity aimed to unite the efforts of scientists working in different fields of polar atmospheric research.

An important task of this activity is the study of solar UV radiation and ozone column that are considered important parameters for both climatic studies and biophysical examination of ecosystems. Several observational stations based in Ny-Ålesund, Hornsund and Barentsburg perform measurements of these parameters on a long-term basis.

The objective of the present proposal is to create the basis for their integration into a regional monitoring network, which will also lead to a closer cooperation of the researchers involved in these activities. Since the technical features of the current instrumentation at the stations involved are quite diverse, it is important to compare their ability to provide reliable and homogeneous data sets.

For that reason, an intercomaprison campaign planned in the frame of the proposed activities is considered an important element for the establishment of a Svalbard UV network. Another significant goal is the joint analysis of the available data and elaboration of common data format and data processing strategy for the future network that will provide a homogeneous data set. It is expected that the results achieved in the frame of the present proposal will contribute to more realistic conclusions made by the climatological and biophysical studies.

Plastic pollution; global sources causing consequences for the Arctic, Towards international state-of-the-art understanding and education

Project

Being a fast developing field of research of increasing complexity, education and training on the impact and fate of MP pollution is lacking behind both in teaching state-of-the art research as well as methodology.

After 2 years of the first phase project PlastPoll, this objective has become even more crucial, acting on the increase of available methodology and understanding of the impacts of nano- and microplastic pollution, as a global challenge impacting even remote and fragile regions as the Arctic.

An overall goal is to train students in combining theoretical, experimental and field approaches for an excellent and sound scientific understanding of relevant processes and observations while at the same time contributing to the understanding of the fate and impact of MPs in the environment by developing this still young field of research on a global scale together.

An invaluable added value to the underlying JPI projects ANDROMEDA and FACTS will result in the evolution of the scope from temperate regions to arctic and high arctic regions. The continuation of the successfully established collaboration between Norway, China and USA will support the strong interaction between not only the supervisors, but also the students themselves. They will be both encouraged and facilitated by exchange visits, webinars and winter-/ summer schools including from the ANDROMEDA and FACTS consortia.

We will additionally offer master student projects in all three locations, which will create additional opportunities for students to participate in specific parts of this project.

At the same time, the exchange of experts will ensure the direct transfer of recent knowledge, leading on arctic research of MP in the environment.

The unique combination of participating research institutions (NILU, NPI) and universities (UiT, UCSF, TU) is complementary in scientific quality, academic programs, experience and qualification.

Bildecollage

Deployment and testing of lower-cost ambient air quality sensor systems in urban environment

Project

The ‘sensEURcity’ project was launched because measurements from cheaper (low cost) air quality sensors are still too unreliable and data quality is insufficiently known. With this project, the Directorate-General of the European Joint Research Centre (DG JRC), with funding from the Directorate-General for Environment, aims to help evaluate the performance and potential of low-cost sensor systems for air quality and make comparisons with conventional measurement methods.

CeO2 Nanoparticles-assisted stem-based cell therapy: an innovative nanopharmaceutical approach to treat retinal degenerative diseases

Project

The main aim of CELLUX is to develop a novel pharmaceutical based on CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) eye drops to treat Age Macular Degeneration (AMD) that in combination with stem cell-based therapeutic strategies, can stop degeneration and restore vision.

The progression of AMD is associated with an increase of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the eye leading to retinal cell death. This chronic disease represents a major cause of blindness in elderly people, and affects millions of people worldwide.

CeO2 NPs have antioxidant properties due to a unique electronic structure that when reduced to the nanoscale, oxygen defects appear at their surface, behaving as sites for free radical scavenging.

The project is financed via ERA NET EuroNanoMed3 program and it is coordinating by University Hospital (VHIR) Barcelona. The consortium consists of six partners from five countries: Spain, Norway, Italy, Czech Republic and France.

The project started in January 2020 and will be performed in a period of 36 months. The project tasks are broken into 6 work packages (WPs).

NILU is involved WP2. "Mechanistic effects and safety of the NPs in vitro" and is responsible for the task 2.1: Cellular interaction and distribution of CeO2 NPs.

NILU will study safety of the CeO2 NPs by the endpoints cytotoxicity (alamarBlue assay) and genotoxicity (enzyme-linked version of the comet assay). Oxidative stress at the DNA level, as well as DNA strand breaks will be studied by the comet assay. Further, mechanisms of interaction of CeO2 NPs with cells will be studied by confocal microscopy (cellular uptake, endocytosis and exocytosis). Antioxidant protective effect of CeO2-NPs will be compared with effect of known antioxidants as ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene.

In the last year NILU has:

i) Established a retinal cell model (RPE) at NILU`s premises

ii) Performed cyto- and genotoxicity testing of the oxidant Tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) and of CeO2 NPs produced by the partners in the project on the well-known cellular model A549 as well as in RPE cells.

iii) Investigated the antioxidant protection against DNA damage with known antioxidants on a well-known cellular model (A549) The known antioxidants ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were tested for their capacity to protect cells from oxidative DNA damage, applying the comet assay.

Experiments are ongoing to test these antioxidants in combination with TBH and CeO-NPs, measured by cell viability and DNA damage. No cell death nor induction of DNA damage was measured after exposure to CeO-NPs.

NILU also investigated cellular interaction of CeO-NP and by confocal microscopy. NILU participated with several scientist at the consortium meetings. Experimental work is a bit delayed due to COVID 19 and laboratories lock down.

Prosjektlogo Faricube

F.A.I.R. information cube

Project

The core objective of FAIRiCUBE is to enable players from beyond classic Earth Observation (EO) domains to provide, access, process, and share gridded data and algorithms in a FAIR and TRUSTable manner.

To reach this objective, we propose creating the FAIRiCUBE HUB, a crosscutting platform and framework for data ingestion, provision, analysis, processing, and dissemination, to unleash the potential of environmental, biodiversity and climate data through dedicated European data spaces.

Within this project, TRL 7 will be attained, together with the necessary governance aspects to assure continued maintenance of the FAIRiCUBE HUB beyond the project lifespan.

This project’s goal is to leverage the power of Machine Learning (ML) operating on multi-thematic datacubes for a broader range of governance and research institutions from diverse fields, who at present cannot easily access and utilize these potent resources.

Selected use cases will illustrate how data-driven projects can benefit from cube formats, infrastructure, and computational benefits. They will guide us in creating a user-friendly FAIRiCUBE HUB, which is tightly integrated to the common European data spaces, providing relevant stakeholders an overview of both data and processing modules readily available to be applied to these data sources.

Tools enabling users not intimately familiar with the worlds of EO and ML to scope the requirements and costs of their desired analyses will be implemented, easing uptake of these resources by a broader community. The FAIR sharing of results with the community will be fostered by providing easy to use tools and workflows directly in the FAIRiCUBE HUB.

REliable Global Methane Emissions estimates in a changing world

Project

In REGAME we will update chemistry transport models (FLEXPART, OsloCTM) to include the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of methane (CH4), enabling better constraints on the CH4 budget (KIE is dependent on source/ sink).

We will update the atmospheric inversion framework FLXINVERT to include novel use of satellite CH4 fields (Sentinel 5P).

This will include significant changes to FLEXINVERT, which will also be applicable to other satellite data e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2) and improve the model capabilities to handle large data fields in general.

With these upgrades we assess CH4 emissions from the major sources (wetlands, biomass burning, anthropogenic) at the global scale using all available data (e.g. ICOS, NOAA data, data on ebas.nilu.no).

This data includes measurements from the Zeppelin Observatory in the Arctic, to Troll in Antarctica, i.e. from pole-to-pole. Our cross disciplinary team is in a unique position to assess the state of the Arctic/ Antarctic ocean CH4 reservoir.

This reservoir is currently considered a minor source but has potential for large scale disruption if emissions increase suddenly and rapidly.

We will perform measurements of CH4 over the ocean (research vessels Helmer Hanssen, Kronprins Haakon) assess temporal variability of CH4 emission from the seabed and movement through the water column (due to e.g. variable microbial activity, ocean stratification, currents and seep emission rates), with long-term (1 year) measurements at a mooring south of Svalbard (deployed for the NorEMSO project) in an area bearing gas hydrates and active CH4 seeps. Furthermore we add to the knowledge of potential seep locations by performing echo-souding surveys.

Combining insights from these temporal and spatial studies will allow a more targeted approach to assessing the ocean source in general. Specifically in REGAME we will run a regional/ Arctic inversion including these data to constrain high latitude emissions including from the ocean.

Circular Economy Resource Information System

Project

The rising demand and limited supply of critical raw materials (CRMs) impair the ability to rapidly adopt technological change toward green and sustainable technologies, which directly affect the resilience of EU industries seeking to achieve Green Deal objectives for an equitable, zeroemission, and digitalized Europe.

In response to these challenges, the European Commission aims to minimize the loss of secondary raw materials (SRM) and optimize their reuse across value chains.

CE-RISE will develop and pilot an integrated framework and an ensuing resource information system to identify optimal solutions for the effective reuse, recovery, and/or recycling of materials by

  1. defining a set of criteria (RE criteria) to evaluate the extent to which products and embedded components can be reused, repaired, refurbished and/or recycled;
  2. incorporating information on RE criteria and material composition of products into the Digital product passport (DPP) to enable traceability of materials in the supply chain;
  3. integrating DPP with information on the environmental footprint of products (PEF), socio-economic and environmental (SEE) impacts of RE processes;
  4. enabling confidential and anonymized information sharing among actors throughout value chains;
  5. providing open access software application to disseminate information on the assessment of RE criteria, PEF and SEE impacts of products to all stakeholders including consumers and policymakers.

The results will be piloted on four case studies. CE-RISE will contribute to bridging the digital divide in society by supplying affordable second-hand ICT devices, and supporting access to digital education and job opportunities. Ultimately, CE-RISE will foster a dynamic ecosystem geared toward prolonging the use of materials in the economy and stimulating circular business models to reduce waste generation while optimizing the reuse of SRMs.

Read more about the project in the news article at NILU web

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3030/101092281

Development of Environmental performance and Climate Impact indicators for the Assessment of Sustainability

Project

The DECIAS project is aimed at developing a modelling toolbox for environmental sustainability assessment based upon Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), dynamic Material Flow Analysis (MFA), and multiregional Input Output Analysis (MRIO).

The production, trade, and consumption of goods and services leads to significant impacts on the climate, environment and human health. The adoption of technological innovations or policies and measures targeting sustainable development can be aided by a systemic sustainability assessment that checks that actions are economically sound and do not come at increased environmental and social cost compared to the present situation. In fact, for many actions it is often possible to identify co-benefits across a range of economic, environmental and social indicators.

The DECIAS project aims to develop a multidisciplinary modeling framework and toolbox to better understand environmental impacts driven by economic activity and consumption. The framework will be based on Material Flow Analysis (MFA), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and multiregional Input-Output (MRIO) assessment. It captures the release of pollutants from human activities through the entire life cycle of materials, and leverages NILU’s experience in modelling pollutant transport through the environment.

Results will enable the comparative assessment of innovations, policies and measures for a transition to a green and circular economy, by estimating the associated social, environmental and climate costs and benefits.

The framework and tools will be developed through a series of case studies to test and demonstrate proof-of-concept. The project will focus on identifying impacts related to the cross-cutting topic climate-energy-land-water signified by UN SDGs 6, 7, 13, 14, 15 and relate to SDGs 3 on health and 12 on sustainable consumption and production.

[caption id="attachment_14339" align="alignnone" width="1024"]Figure illustrating the life cycle Life cycle[/caption]

Air quality profiling using low-cost gas and particle sensors

Project

Airify is an industrial innovation project where NILU will contribute to evaluate the performance of novel low-cost sensor systems developed by LASTING Software. During the project we will test Airify sensor systems both in laboratory and in the field.

Climate gas emissions from tourist mobility in Norway

Project

This is a project for Innovation Norway to estimate the CO2 emissions of transport from the movement of tourists to, in and from Norway.

Emissions are calculated from detailed input data, separating both origin destination and purpose of travel.

A key outcome of the project has been an emission calculator designed to provide useful information on emissions by different types of tourists for a destination.

Additionally, the project aims to provide an overview of total emissions for all tourist travels in Norway.