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Found 9200 publications. Showing page 2 of 368:

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Opinion of the Scientific Committee on health, environmental and emerging risks on the safety of titanium dioxide in toys

Bodin, Laurent; Dusinska, Maria; Stepnik, Maciej; Wijnhoven, Susan; Autrup, Herman; von Goetz, Natalie; Vermeire, Theo G.; Hoet, Peter; Ion, Rodica Mariana; Krätke, Renate; Proykova, Ana; Scott, Marian; de Jong, Wim H.

The Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks advises the European Commission on whether the uses of titanium dioxide in toys and toy materials can be considered to be safe in light of the identified exposure, and the classification of titanium dioxide as carcinogenic category 2 after inhalation. Four toy products including casting kits, chalk, powder paints and white colour pencils containing various amounts of TiO2 as colouring agent were evaluated for inhalation risks. For the oral route, childrens’ lip gloss/lipstick, finger paint and white colour pencils were evaluated.

When it can be demonstrated with high certainty that no ultrafine fraction is present in pigmentary TiO2 preparations used in toys and toy materials, safe use with no or negligible risk for all products considered is indicated based on the exposure estimations of this Opinion. However, if an ultrafine fraction is assumed to be present, safe use is not indicated, except for white colour pencils.

Elsevier

2024

Enhanced electrochemical activity of boron-doped nanocarbon functionalized reticulated vitreous carbon structures for water treatment applications

Kaczmarzyk, Iwona; Banasiak, Mariusz; Jakobczyk, Pawel; Sobaszek, Michał Sobaszek; Strugala, Gabriel; Seramak, Tomasz; Rostkowski, Pawel; Karczewski, Jakub; Sawczak, Mirosław; Ryl, Jacek; Bogdanowicz, Robert

An extraordinary charge transfer kinetics and chemical stability make a boron-doped diamond (BDD) a promising material for electrochemical applications including wastewater treatment. Yet, with flat geometrical surfaces its scaling options are limited. In this study, the reticulated Vitreous Carbon (RVC) served as a substrate for boron-doped diamondized nanocarbons (BDNC) film growth resulting with complex heterogeneity carbon structures with different morphologies defined by using electron microscopy, microtomography, activation energy studies, and Raman spectroscopy.

The proposed modification significantly boosted the electrochemical Fe(CN)63−/4− redox activity. The voltammetry and impedimetric studies revealed its origin as a significantly higher share of electrochemically active sites at the BDNC@RVC electrode (increased by 114 %) combined with enhanced heterogeneous rate constant (2× increase up to 8.24·10−4 cm s−1). Finally, to establish its applicability for water treatment, the BDNC@RVC was studied as the anode in electrochemical paracetamol decomposition. Boron-enriched nanoarchitecture formed at the RVC electrode surface substantially reduced the oxidation energy barrier manifested as a decrease in activation overpotential by 212 mV, which gave a consequence in a 78 % removal rate (in 4 h, at 0.7 mA cm−2), 12 % higher than bare RVC and yielding lower amounts of APAP decomposition intermediates.

2024

A top-down estimation of subnational CO2 budget using a global high-resolution inverse model with data from regional surface networks

Nayagam, Lorna Raja; Maksyutov, Shamil; Oda, Tomohiro; Janardanan, Rajesh; Trisolino, Pamela; Zeng, Jiye; Kaiser, Johannes; Matsunaga, Tsuneo

Top-down approaches, such as atmospheric inversions, are a promising tool for evaluating emission estimates based on activity-data. In particular, there is a need to examine carbon budgets at subnational scales (e.g. state/province), since this is where the climate mitigation policies occur. In this study, the subnational scale anthropogenic CO2 emissions are estimated using a high-resolution global CO2 inverse model. The approach is distinctive with the use of continuous atmospheric measurements from regional/urban networks along with background monitoring data for the period 2015–2019 in global inversion. The measurements from several urban areas of the U.S., Europe and Japan, together with recent high-resolution emission inventories and data-driven flux datasets were utilized to estimate the fossil emissions across the urban areas of the world. By jointly optimizing fossil fuel and natural fluxes, the model is able to contribute additional information to the evaluation of province–scale emissions, provided that sufficient regional network observations are available. The fossil CO2 emission estimates over the U.S. states such as Indiana, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Virginia and Maryland were found to have a reasonable agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) inventory, and the model corrects the emissions substantially towards the EPA estimates for California and Indiana. The emission estimates over the United Kingdom, France and Germany are comparable with the regional inventory TNO–CAMS. We evaluated model estimates using independent aircraft observations, while comparison with the CarbonTracker model fluxes confirms ability to represent the biospheric fluxes. This study highlights the potential of the newly developed inverse modeling system to utilize the atmospheric data collected from the regional networks and other observation platforms for further enhancing the ability to perform top-down carbon budget assessment at subnational scales and support the monitoring and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

2024

Relative impacts of sea ice loss and atmospheric internal variability on winter Arctic to East Asian surface air temperature based on large-ensemble simulations with NorESM2

He, Shengping; Drange, Helge; Furevik, Tore; Wang, Hui-Jun; Fan, Ke; Graff, Lise Seland; Orsolini, Yvan Joseph Georges Emile G.

Science Press

2024

Vurdering av miljøgifter i kanaliserte utslipp til luft ved Metallco NMF

Weydahl, Torleif; Halvorsen, Helene Lunder; Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie

NILU

2023

Identifying and Quantifying Atmospheric Sources of Organic Contaminants to the Habitat of the Saint Lawrence Estuary Belugas

Wania, Frank; Zhan, F.; Li, Y.; Oh, J.; Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Lei, Y. D.; Lu, Z.; Breivik, Knut; Chaaben, A. B.; Castilloux, A. D.; Alexandrou, N.; Weng, C.; Hung, H.

2023

Trends in polar ozone loss since 1989: potential sign of recovery in the Arctic ozone column

Pazmiño, Andrea; Goutail, Florence; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Hauchecorne, Alain; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Feng, Wuhu; Lefèvre, Franck; Lecouffe, Audrey; Van Roozendael, Michel; Jepsen, Nis; Hansen, Georg H.; Kivi, Rigel; Strong, Kimberly; Walker, Kaley A.

Ozone depletion over the polar regions is monitored each year by satellite- and ground-based instruments. In this study, the vortex-averaged ozone loss over the last 3 decades is evaluated for both polar regions using the passive ozone tracer of the chemical transport model TOMCAT/SLIMCAT and total ozone observations from Système d'Analyse par Observation Zénithale (SAOZ) ground-based instruments and Multi-Sensor Reanalysis (MSR2). The passive-tracer method allows us to determine the evolution of the daily rate of column ozone destruction and the magnitude of the cumulative column loss at the end of the winter. Three metrics are used in trend analyses that aim to assess the ozone recovery rate over both polar regions: (1) the maximum ozone loss at the end of the winter, (2) the onset day of ozone loss at a specific threshold, and (3) the ozone loss residuals computed from the differences between annual ozone loss and ozone loss values regressed with respect to sunlit volume of polar stratospheric clouds (VPSCs). This latter metric is based on linear and parabolic regressions for ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere, respectively. In the Antarctic, metrics 1 and 3 yield trends of −2.3 % and −2.2 % per decade for the 2000–2021 period, significant at 1 and 2 standard deviations (σ), respectively. For metric 2, various thresholds were considered at the total ozone loss values of 20 %, 25 %, 30 %, 35 %, and 40 %, all of them showing a time delay as a function of year in terms of when the threshold is reached. The trends are significant at the 2σ level and vary from 3.5 to 4.2 d per decade between the various thresholds. In the Arctic, metric 1 exhibits large interannual variability, and no significant trend is detected; this result is highly influenced by the record ozone losses in 2011 and 2020. Metric 2 is not applied in the Northern Hemisphere due to the difficulty in finding a threshold value in enough of the winters. Metric 3 provides a negative trend in Arctic ozone loss residuals with respect to the sunlit VPSC fit of −2.00 ± 0.97 (1σ) % per decade, with limited significance at the 2σ level. With such a metric, a potential quantitative detection of ozone recovery in the Arctic springtime lower stratosphere can be made.

2023

Isoscapes Norway

Johansen, Ingar; Polteau, Stephane; Vogt, Rolf David; Uggerud, Hilde Thelle; Clayer, Francois

2023

Accurate Lightweight Calibration Methods for Mobile Low-Cost Particulate Matter Sensors

Jørstad, Per Martin; Wojcikowski, Marek; Cao, Tuan-Vu; Lepioufle, Jean-Marie; Wojtkiewicz, Krystian; Ha, Hoai Phuong

2023

Troll observing network – for useful new data about Antarctica

Pedersen, Christina Alsvik; Njåstad, Birgit; Descamps, Sebastien; Hattermann, Tore; Hudson, Stephen; Flått, Stig; Tronstad, Stein; Aas, Wenche; Darelius, Elin Maria K.; Miloch, Wojciech Jacek; Schweitzer, Johannes; Storvold, Rune

What do Antarctic petrels in Svarthamaren, soil structure movements at Troll research station and ocean chemistry in the Håkon VII Sea have in common? They will all be studied at the Troll observing network currently being established at Troll research station in Dronning Maud Land in Antarctica.

2023

Fate of Anthropogenic Particles in Arctic Waters around Svalbard

Philipp, Carolin; Collard, France; Husum, Katrine; Herzke, Dorte; Halsband, Claudia; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hallanger, Ingeborg G.

2023

Phthalate contamination in marine mammals off the Norwegian coast

Andvik, Clare; Bories, Pierre; Harju, Mikael; Borgå, Katrine; Jourdain, Eve; Karoliussen, Richard; Rikardsen, Audun; Routti, Heli; Blévin, Pierre

Phthalates are used in plastics, found throughout the marine environment and have the potential to cause adverse health effects. In the present study, we quantified blubber concentrations of 11 phthalates in 16 samples from stranded and/or free-living marine mammals from the Norwegian coast: the killer whale (Orcinus orca), sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), and harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). Five compounds were detected across all samples: benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP; in 50 % of samples), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP; 33 %), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP; 33 %), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP; 19 %), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP; 13 %). Overall, the most contaminated individual was the white-beaked dolphin, whilst the lowest concentrations were measured in the killer whale, sperm whale and long-finned pilot whale. We found no phthalates in the neonate killer whale. The present study is important for future monitoring and management of these toxic compounds.

Elsevier

2023

Local pollution in Svalbard - Whereabouts of anthropogenic particles in an Arctic fjord system

Philipp, Carolin; Collard, France; Husum, Katrine; Halsband, Claudia; Herzke, Dorte; Corami, Fabiana; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Hallanger, Ingeborg G.

2023

A portal supporting risk governance of nano- and advanced materials

Fransman, W.; Panagiotis, Isigonis; Afantitis, Antreas; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Bouman, Evert Alwin; Drobne, D.; Pozuelo Rollón, B.

2023

RISKGONE - Science-based risk governance of nano-technology

Moschini, Elisa; Isigonis, Panagiotis; Bouman, Evert Alwin; Doak, Shareen H.; Longhin, Eleonora Marta; Lynch, Iseult; Malsch, Ineke; Serchi, Tommaso; Steinbach, Christoph; Gutleb, Arno; Dusinska, Maria

2023

Relative impacts of sea ice loss and atmospheric internal variability on winter Arctic to East Asian surface air temperature based on large-ensemble simulations with NorESM2

He, Shengping; Drange, Helge; Furevik, Tore; Wang, Huijun; Fan, Ke; Graff, Lise Seland; Orsolini, Yvan Joseph Georges Emile G.

2023

The Impact of Recent European Droughts and Heatwaves on Trace Gas Surface Fluxes: Insights from Land Surface Data Assimilation

Hamer, Paul David; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Bonan, Bertrand; Meurey, Catherine; Vallejo, Islen; Eckhardt, Sabine; Sousa Santos, Gabriela; Marécal, Virginie; Tarrasón, Leonor

2023

Spatiotemporal patterns of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 in Legionowo, Poland

Salamalikis, Vasileios; Hassani, Amirhossein; Schneider, Philipp

2023

Between man and technology: adressing IAQ in Norwegian schools

Bartonova, Alena; Fredriksen, Mirjam; Høiskar, Britt Ann Kåstad

2023

Deployment and evaluation of network of open low-cost air quality sensor systems

Dauge, Franck Rene; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Haugen, Rolf; Hassani, Amirhossein; Castell, Nuria; Bartonova, Alena

2023

Level of agreement (variability) of PM10 and PM2.5 detected with equivalent v.s. low-cost monitors installed in four municipalities

Davidovic, Milos; Kleut, Duška N.; Bartonova, Alena; De Vito, Saverio; Ristovski, Zoran; Jovašević-Stojanović, Milena

2023

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