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Found 335 publications. Showing page 2 of 14:

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Monitoring of environmental contaminants in freshwater food webs (MILFERSK) 2022

Jartun, Morten; Økelsrud, Asle; Bæk, Kine; Rundberget, Thomas; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Ruus, Anders; Grung, Merete; Enge, Ellen Katrin; Hanssen, Linda; Harju, Mikael; Johansen, Ingar

Norsk institutt for vannforskning

2023

Environmental Contaminants in an Urban Fjord, 2022

Ruus, Anders; Grung, Merete; Jartun, Morten; Bæk, Kine; Rundberget, Thomas; Beylich, Bjørnar; Hanssen, Linda; Enge, Ellen Katrin; Borgå, Katrine; Helberg, Morten

This report presents data from the second year of a new 5-year period of the Urban Fjord programme. The programme started in 2013 and has since been altered/advanced. In 2022 the programme covers sampling and analyses of sediment, polychaetes, krill, shrimps, blue mussels, herring, cod, eider, and herring gull from the Inner Oslofjord. In addition, samples of Harbour seals from the Outer Oslofjord are analysed. A total of ~300 single compounds/isomers were analysed, and frequent detection was found of certain PFAS compounds (such as PFOS) in most matrices, certain QACs in sediment, MCCPs in most matrices (also SCCPs in birds and seals, as well as LCCPs in seals), D5 (siloxane) in all matrices, certain PBDEs (such as BDE 100) in most matrices, PCBs in all matrices, BCPS (phenolic) in seals and certain metals in all matrices. Biomagnification was observed for 28 PCB congeners and 6 PBDEs (lipid wt. basis). Furthermore, biomagnification was observed for 5 PFAS compounds, as well as for the metals As, Ag and Hg (wet wt. basis).

Norsk institutt for vannforskning

2023

City-level mapping of air quality at fine spatial resolution – the Prague case study. NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 maps on a 100 m spatial grid.

Horálek, Jan; Damaskova, Dasa; Schneider, Philipp; Kurfürst, Pavel; Schreiberova, Marketa; Vlcek, Ondrej

This paper examines the creation of fine resolution maps at 100 m x 100 m resolution using statistical downscaling for the area of Prague, as a case study. This Czech city was selected due to the fine resolution proxy data available for this city. The reference downscaling methodology used is the linear regression and the interpolation of its residuals by the area-to-point kriging. Next to this, several other methods of statistical downscaling have been also executed. The results of different downscaling methods have been compared mutually and against the data from the monitoring stations of Prague, separately for urban background and traffic areas.

The downscaled maps in 100 m x 100 m resolution have been constructed for the area of Prague for three pollutants, namely for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Several methods of the statistical downscaling have been compared mutually and against the data from the monitoring stations. In general, the best results are given by the linear regression and the interpolation of its residuals, either by the area-to-point kriging or the bilinear interpolation. In the maps, one can see overall realistic spatial patterns, the main roads in Prague are visible through higher air pollution levels. This is distinct especially for NO2, while for PM10 and PM2.5 the differences between road increments and urban background are smaller as would be expected. The results of the case study for Prague have proven the usefulness of the statistical downscaling for the air quality mapping, especially for NO2. In addition, the population exposure estimates based on the downscaled mapping results have been also calculated.

ETC/HE

2023

Environmental pollutants in the terrestrial and urban environment 2022

Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Moe, Børge; Borgen, Anders; Enge, Ellen Katrin; Nordang, Unni Mette; Bæk, Kine; Nipen, Maja; Harju, Mikael; Hanssen, Linda

Samples of soil, earthworm, fieldfare egg, brown rat liver, spanish slug, house dust and cat liver from the urban terrestrial environment in the Oslo area were analysed for several different groups of environmental pollutants. Biota-soil accumulation was calculated from soil to earthworm from the same location, and biomagnification-potential was estimated based on detected data for relevant predator-prey pairs from the same location.

NILU

2023

Concept and plan of effect-based monitoring and effect directed analysis (EDA) of chemicals towards EWS

Niarchos, Georgios; Engwall, Magnus; Bentström, Linda Irene; Larsson, Maria; Lundqvist, Johan; Ahrens, Lutz; Vorkamp, Katrin; Alygizakis, Nikiforos A.; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Rostkowski, Pawel; Kallenborn, Roland; Karakitsios, Spyros; Kärrman, Anna; Carere, Mario

Establishment of an early warning system (EWS) for the identification of new and existing potentially hazardous substances is a key component of PARC. An EWS includes early warning monitoring toolboxes to identify chemical hazards in a broad range of biotic and abiotic matrices and products with a special focus on aqueous environment that may be associated with an unacceptable health risk. Effect-based monitoring (EBM) and effect-directed analysis (EDA) are identified as key toolboxes for prioritizing chemical hazards in various matrices including water, soil, sediment, sludge, air, dust, aquatic and terrestrial biota, human samples, products like food contact materials, and food. This report gives an overview of i) sampling strategies, ii) sample preparation methods for bioassays and chemical analysis, iii) EBM using bioassays, iv) chemical analytical methods including target, suspect and nontarget screening, v) EDA and iceberg modelling, and vi) future perspectives and needs for an EWS.

Partnership for the Assessment of Risks from Chemicals (PARC)

2023

VOC measurements 2021

Solberg, Sverre; Claude, Anja; Reimann, Stefan; Walker, Sam-Erik

NILU

2023

Heavy metals and POP measurements, 2021

Aas, Wenche; Halvorsen, Helene Lunder; Hartz, William Frederik; Pfaffhuber, Katrine Aspmo; Yttri, Nora

NILU

2023

Ozone measurements 2021

Hjellbrekke, Anne-Gunn; Solberg, Sverre

NILU

2023

Satellite remote sensing of Arctic fires - a literature and data review

Stebel, Kerstin

The main aim of this report is to prepare for the proposed SGA #17 of the Caroline Herschel Framework Partnership Agreement on Copernicus User Uptake Work Programme 2020 named “Arctic peat- and forest-fire information system”. First, we summarize the scientific background of wildfires in the Arctic and the Northern boreal zone and describe observations of long-range transport of forest fire pollution. This is followed by an overview of satellite data and resources available for fire monitoring in these regions. This covers the fire ECVs, as well as smoke plume tracers. Furthermore, we list CAMS and CEMS resources, i.e., GWIS, EFFIS (including the latest country report for Norway), and GFAS, as well as other fire emission inventories. Knowledge gaps and limitations of satellite remote sen.sing, future missions, Norwegian user uptake and user groups are described.

NILU

2023

Monitoring of the atmospheric ozone layer and natural ultraviolet radiation. Annual Report 2022.

Svendby, Tove Marit; Fjæraa, Ann Mari; Nilsen, Anne-Cathrine; Schulze, Dorothea; Johnsen, Bjørn

This report summarizes the results from the Norwegian monitoring programme on stratospheric ozone and UV radiation measurements. The ozone layer has been measured at three locations since 1979: In Oslo/Kjeller, Tromsø/Andøya and Ny-Ålesund. The UV-measurements started in 1995. The results show that there was a significant decrease in stratospheric ozone above Norway between 1979 and 1997. After that, the ozone layer stabilized at a level ~2% below pre-1980 level. The year 2022 was characterized by annual average total ozone values slightly below “normal”.

NILU

2023

Transboundary particulate matter, photo-oxidants, acidifying and eutrophying components

Fagerli, Hilde; Benedictow, Anna Maria Katarina; van Caspel, Willem; Gauss, Michael; Ge, Yao; Jonson, Jan Eiof; Klein, Heiko; Nyiri, Agnes; Simpson, David; Tsyro, Svetlana; Valdebenito, Alvaro; Wind, Peter; Aas, Wenche; Hjellbrekke, Anne-Gunn; Solberg, Sverre; Tørseth, Kjetil; Yttri, Karl Espen; Matthews, Bradley; Schindlbacher, Sabine; Ullrich, Bernhard; Wankmüller, Robert; Klimont, Zbigniew; Scheuschner, Thomas; Kuenen, Jeroen J.P.; Hellén, Heidi; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Tusha, Diellëza; Mothes, Falk; Salameh, Therese; van Drooge, Barend L.; Wegener, Robert

Norwegian Meteorological Institute

2023

Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants in Norway. Annual Report 2022.

Aas, Wenche; Eckhardt, Sabine; Solberg, Sverre; Yttri, Karl Espen

This report presents results from the monitoring of atmospheric composition and deposition of air pollution in 2022, and focuses on main components in air and precipitation, particulate and gaseous phase of inorganic constituents, particulate carbonaceous matter, ground level ozone and particulate matter. The level of pollution in 2022 was generally low though a few high episodes occurred, i.e., one in March with elevated aerosol concentrations and one during July, with high ozone levels.

NILU

2023

Kartlegging av svevestøv fra anleggsvirksomhet i Lørenskog kommune. Målinger i perioden april – august 2022.

Hak, Claudia; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Grythe, Henrik; Markelj, Miha; Vo, Dam Thanh; Høiskar, Britt Ann Kåstad

I et samarbeidsprosjekt med Lørenskog kommune utførte NILU en målekampanje rundt ett av boligbyggeprosjektene på Lørenskog. Formålet med målingene var å få økt kunnskap om svevestøvnivåer i omgivelsene til anleggsplasser. Målingene ble utført ved 2 steder rundt en byggeplass på Skårerbyen.
Måleresultatene viser at PM10 nivået var høyere rundt anleggsplassen enn ved en nærliggende veinær målestasjon. Observasjonene tyder på at anleggsaktivitet var årsaken. Et viktig resultat fra målekampanjen er at målinger av svevestøv med optiske målemetoder ikke anses som egnet i områder der anleggsstøv dominerer.

NILU

2023

FAIRMODE Guidance Document on Modelling Quality Objectives and Benchmarking. Version 3.3.

Janssen, S.; Thunis, P.; Adani, M.; Piersanti, A.; Carnevale, C.; Cuvelier, C.; Durka, P.; Georgieva, E.; Guerreiro, Cristina; Malherbe, L.; Maiheu, B.; Meleux, F.; Monteiro, A.; Miranda, A.; Olesen, H.; Pfafflin, F.; Stocker, J.; Sousa Santos, Gabriela; Stidworthy, A.; Stortini, M.; Trimpeneers, E.; Viaene, P.; Vitali, L.; Vincent, K.; Wesseling, J.

The development of the procedure for air quality model benchmarking in the context of the Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC (AQD) has been an on-going activity in the context of the FAIRMODE community, chaired by the JRC. A central part of the studies was the definition of proper modelling quality indicators and criteria to be fulfilled in order to allow sufficient level of quality for a given model application under the AQD. The focus initially on applications related to air quality assessment has gradually been expanded to other applications, such as forecasting and planning. The main purpose of this Guidance Document is to explain and summarise the current concepts of the modelling quality objective methodology, elaborated in various papers and documents in the FAIRMODE community, addressing model applications for air quality assessment and forecast. Other goals of the Document are linked to presentation and explanation of templates for harmonised reporting of modelling results. Giving an overview of still open issues in the implementation of the presented methodology, the document aims at triggering further research and discussions. A core set of statistical indicators is defined using pairs of measurement-modelled data. The core set is the basis for the definition of a modelling quality indicator (MQI) and additional modelling performance indicators (MPI), which take into account the measurement uncertainty. The MQI describes the discrepancy between measurements and modelling results (linked to RMSE), normalised by measurement uncertainty and a scaling factor. The modelling quality objective (MQO) requires MQI to be less than or equal to 1. With an arbitrary selection of the scaling factor of 2, the fulfilment of the MQO means that the allowed deviation between modelled and measured concentrations is twice the measurement uncertainty. Expressions for the MQI calculation based on time series and yearly data are introduced. MPI refer to aspects of correlation, bias and standard deviation, applied to both the spatial and temporal dimensions. Similarly to the MQO for the MQI, modelling performance criteria (MPC) are defined for the MPI; they are necessary, but not sufficient criteria to determine whether the MQO is fulfilled. The MQO is required to be fulfilled at 90% of the stations, a criterion which is implicitly taken into account in the derivation of the MQI. The associated modelling uncertainty is formulated, showing that in case of MQO fulfilment the modelling uncertainty must not exceed 1.75 times the measurement one (with the scaling factor fixed to 2). A reporting template is presented and explained for hourly and yearly average data. In both cases there is a diagram and a table with summary statistics. In a separate section open issues are discussed and an overview of related publications and tools is provided. Finally, a chapter on modelling quality objectives for forecast models is introduced. In Annex 1, we discuss the measurement uncertainty which is expressed in terms of concentration and its associated uncertainty. The methodology for estimating the measurement uncertainty is overviewed and the parameters for its calculation for PM, NO2 and O3 are provided. An expression for the associated modelling uncertainty is also given. This aim of this document is to support modelling groups, local, regional and national authorities in their modelling application, in the context of air quality policy.

Publications Office for the European Union

2022

Source apportionment to support air quality management practices. A fitness-for-purpose guide (V 4.0).

Clappier, A.; Thunis, P.; Pirovano, G.; Riffault, V.; Gilardoni, S.; Pisoni, E.; Guerreiro, Cristina; Monteiro, A.; Dupont, H; Waersted, E.; Hellebust, S.; Stocker, J.; Eriksson, A.; Angyal, A.; Bonafe, G.; Montanari, F.; Matejovica, J.; Bartzis, J.; Gianelle, V.

Information on the origin of pollution is an essential element of air quality management that helps identifying measures to control air pollution. In this document, we review the most widely used source-apportionment (SA) methods for air quality management. The focus is on particulate matter but examples are provided for NO2 as well. Using simple theoretical examples, we explain the differences between these methods and the circumstances where they give different results and thus possibly different conclusions for air quality management. These differences are a consequence of the assumptions that underpin each methodology and determine/limit their range of applicability. We show that ignoring these underlying assumptions is a risk for efficient/successful air quality management when the methods are used outside their scope or range of applicability.

Publications Office for the European Union

2022

Best practices for local and regional air quality management. Version 1.

Pisoni, E.; Guerreiro, Cristina; Namdeo, A.; Ortiz, A. G.; Thunis, P.; Janssen, S.; Ketzel, M; Wackenier, L.; Eisold, A.; Volta, M.; Nagl, C.; Monteiro, A.; Eneroth, K.; Fameli, K. M.; Real, E.; Assimakopoulos, V; Pommier, M; Conlan, B.

FAIRMODE is the Forum for Air Quality Modeling created for exchanging experience and results from air quality modeling in the context of the Air Quality Directives (AQD) and for promoting the use of modeling for air quality assessment and management. FAIRMODE is organized in different activities and task, called cross-cutting tasks, to which representative of Member States and experts participate. Among the different activities, one is devoted to Air Quality management practices, called cross-cutting task 5 (CT5). This report is indeed based on the last activities of the FAIRMODE Cross Cutting Task 5 (CT5), focusing, in particular, on elaborating recommendations to support local, regional and national authorities in the use of modelling for the development of air quality plans, defining on how to quantify emission changes associated to a set of measures, and quantifying their impacts in terms of concentration (using an ‘impact pathway approach’ from ‘abatement measure’ to ‘emissions’ to ‘concentrations’). This is done on one side taking advantage of the results already produced by previous FAIRMODE working groups and in coordination with existing activities under other FAIRMODE CTs. On the other side, examples of best practice policies are presented, focusing on Low emission zones: with an example on Antwerp and Copenhagen, Measures on non-exhaust traffic to reduce PM, with an application on Stockholm. How to reduce ozone concentrations, with a focus on local to global contributions. How to build an air quality plan in an integrated way, with an application on Italy. How to evaluate the socio-economic impact of measures, focusing on a case study on UK. The results show how different pollutants should be tackled differently, the importance of integration among different sectoral plans (on emissions, greenhouse gases mitigation, …) and also how other dimensions of the problem (i.e. social aspects) should be considered when building air quality plans.

Publications Office for the European Union

2022

Status report of air quality in Europe for year 2022, using validated and up-to-date data

Targa, Jaume; Ripoll, Anna; Banyuls, Lorena; Ortiz, Alberto González; Soares, Joana

ETC/HE

2023

Status report of air quality in Europe for year 2021, using validated data

Targa, Jaume; Ripoll, Anna; Banyuls, Lorena; Ortiz, Alberto González; Soares, Joana

ETC/HE

2023

Deposition of sulfur and nitrogen in Norway 2017-2021

Blake, Lewis R.; Aas, Wenche; Denby, Bruce; Hjellbrekke, Anne-Gunn; Mu, Qing; Simpson, David; Ytre-Eide, Martin; Fagerli, Hilde

Norwegian Meteorological Institute

2023

Nasjonalt veikart for CO2M/CO2MVS

Kylling, Arve; Børke, Ragnhild; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Peters, Glen Philip; Stebel, Kerstin; Tarrasón, Leonor

På vegne av Norsk Romsenter har NILU – Norsk institutt for luftforskning og CICERO Senter for klimaforskning utarbeidet et veikart for hvordan Norge kan nyttiggjøre seg data fra CO2 Monitoring-satellittene (CO2M) og tjenesten CO2-emissions Monitoring and Verification Support Capacity (CO2MVS) i forvaltning, forskningsmiljøer og næringsliv. Veikartet avslutter med anbefalinger for veien videre for Norge vedrørende CO2M og CO2MVS.

NILU

2023

Hazard and exposure assessment of do-it-yourself products forimpregnation

Højriis, Sara; Christensen, Frans; Larssen, Carsten; Nikiforov, Vladimir; Sørli, Jorid Birkelund; Jensen, Alexander Christian Østerskov (eds.)

A large number of do-it-yourself impregnation products are marketed to Danish consumers. The products are typically used for re-impregnation of consumer products (e.g. footware and outdoor clothing) immediately after the products have been purchased or when the water and/or dirt-repellent effect begins to diminish.

The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has chosen to make a survey of the market, where 110 do-it-yourself impregnation products were identified within ten different application categories. Out of these products, 14 were included in initial chemical content analyzes, as well as hazard and exposure analyzes. The main components in the majority of the products were saturated hydrocarbons, but some of the products also contained oxygen-containing solvents (e.g. alcohols, ethers, esters or ketones). The potential hazard of 12 of the 14 selected impregnation spray products was performed by measuring acute respiratory toxicity. Of the 12 products tested, 10 inhibited the function of the lung surfactant and may therefore potentially be harmful by inhalation.

On the basis of this study, it could not be demonstrated that the products with PFAS resulted in an inhibition of the lung surfactant at lower doses as compared to products without PFAS; in fact, the lowest inhibitory doses were seen for impregnating agents based on siloxanes/silicones. The results show that the hazardous properties of an impregnation product cannot be determined solely on the basis of the ingredients, and it is therefore necessary to examine the ability of the individual products to inhibit the lung surfactant in connection with a hazard assessment.

Danish Environmental Protection Agency

2023

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